Tribute to Nobel laureates, groundbreaking inventions in science

Each October, committees in Sweden and Norway award six Nobel Prizes, each recognizing a groundbreaking contribution by an individual or organization in a particular field.

Prizes are awarded for physiology or medicine, physics, chemistry, economics, literature and peace work.

The winner receives a diploma along with a medal, and each award also receives 10 million Swedish kronor or more than $1.1 million, which is divided if there are multiple winners in the category.

On the special occasion of Independence Day, let us celebrate these Indian Nobel laureates in science.

CV Raman (The Nobel Prize in Physics, 1930)

Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, affectionately known as CV Raman, won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 “for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect which bears his name”.

His discovery of the “Raman effect”, the phenomenon of wavelength change in deflected light rays, is considered a milestone in the understanding of physics.

Har Gobind Khorana (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1968)

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the Indian-American biochemist, Har Gobind Khorana in 1968, alongside Marshall W Nirenberg and Robert W Holley for “their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis “.

The trio’s work established that nucleotides in nucleic acids, which act as carriers of a cell’s genetic code, control the process of protein synthesis by cells.

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (The Nobel Prize in Physics, 1983)

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 for “his theoretical studies of physical processes important for stellar structure and evolution”.

He is the nephew of Nobel Laureate Sir CV Raman. His discoveries led to the establishment of the physical process involved in the evolution of stars.

Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (The Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 2009)

Venkataram Ramakrishnan, an Indian-American-British structuralist biologist, won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2009, along with Thomas A Steitz and Ada E Yonath for “the study of the structure and function of the ribosome”.

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