2021 Nobel Laureates: Complete List

Each October, committees in Sweden and Norway award six Nobel Prizes, each recognizing a revolutionary contribution from an individual or organization in a specific field.

Prizes are awarded for physiology or medicine, physics, chemistry, economics, literature and peace work. The winners receive a diploma and a medal, and each prize also receives 10 million Swedish kronor, or approximately $ 1.1 million, which is divided if there are multiple winners.

Due to the pandemic, this year’s festivities will be a mix of digital and physical events. The winners will receive their Nobel Prize medals and diplomas in their home countries in December, the organization said.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded jointly to David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian “for their discoveries of temperature and touch receptors”.

The pair made groundbreaking discoveries that initiated intense research activity which in turn led to a rapid increase in our understanding of how our nervous system senses heat, cold, and mechanical stimuli.

Dr Julius is professor of physiology at the University of California at San Francisco. Dr Patapoutian is a molecular biologist and neuroscientist at Scripps Research in La Jolla, California.

The laureates were Syukuro Manabe from Princeton University, Klaus Hasselmann from the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany, and Giorgio Parisi from Sapienza University in Rome.

The work of the three is essential to understanding how the Earth’s climate is changing and how human behavior influences these changes.

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Benjamin List and David WC MacMillan for their development of a new tool for building molecules, work that has spurred advances in pharmaceutical research and reduced the impact of chemistry on the environment.

Their work, while invisible to consumers, is an essential part of many high-tech industries and is crucial for research.

Dr List is a German chemist and director of the Max Planck Institute for Coal Research in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany. Dr MacMillan is a Scottish chemist and professor at Princeton University, where he also headed the chemistry department from 2010 to 2015.

The Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded to Abdulrazak Gurnah for “his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the plight of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents”.

Mr. Gurnah was born in Zanzibar, Tanzania, in 1948, but now lives in Britain. He is the first African to win the award – considered the most prestigious in world literature – in nearly two decades.

Mr. Gurnah’s 10 novels include “Memory of the Departure,” “Pilgrims Way” and “Dottie,” all of which deal with the immigrant experience in Britain; “Paradise,” selected for the Booker Prize in 1994, about a boy in an East African country marked by colonialism; and “Admiring Silence” about a young man who leaves Zanzibar for England, where he marries and becomes a teacher.

Journalists Maria Ressa and Dmitri A. Muratov received the Nobel Peace Prize for their efforts to promote freedom of expression, which the Nobel Committee described as a prerequisite for democracy and lasting peace.

The two were recognized for “their courageous fight for free speech in the Philippines and Russia,” the committee noting that they were part of a larger struggle to protect press freedoms.

Ms Ressa – a Fulbright scholar, who was also named Time magazine’s 2018 Person of the Year for her work in the crusade against disinformation – has been a constant thorn in the side of Rodrigo Duterte, her country’s authoritarian president. .

Mr. Muratov has defended freedom of expression in Russia for decades, working under increasingly difficult conditions. Hours after news of the awards ceremony, the Kremlin stepped up its crackdown on critics, calling nine journalists and activists “foreign agents,” a designation that places heavy demands on them.

This year there were 329 candidates for the Peace Prize, the Nobel committee said. Here’s how these appointments work.

David Card, Joshua D. Angrist and Guido W. Imbens received the Memorial Nobel Prize in Economics.

Mr. Card has a career in studying unintentional experiments to examine economic issues, such as whether raising the minimum wage results in job losses.

Mr Angrist and Mr Imbens have developed research tools that help economists use real-life situations to test big theories, such as how additional education affects income.

The three winners are based in the United States. Mr. Card, who was born in Canada, works at the University of California at Berkeley. Mr. Angrist, born in the United States, is at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Mr. Imbens, born in the Netherlands, is at Stanford University.

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